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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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182


INDEX

A

Abbadia, 22
Acid rain, 97
- from asteroid impact, 26
After Man (Dixon), 5-6, 133-134
Age of Dinosaurs, 8, 13, 15, 32
- end of, 8, 24-28, 29
Age of Humanity, 9
- evolution in. See Human
evolution extinction in. See Current mass extinction
- future of, 174-175. See also Future evolution
Age of Mammals, 8
Aging, 147
Agribusiness, 113
Agriculture
- domestication in. See Domestication
- environmental impact of, 91,96
- genetic engineering in, 110-113
- population growth and, 93
- transgenic crops in, 110-113
- water resources and, 93-95
Air pollution. See also Pollution
- ozone depletion from, 97
Albedo, 71
Alien invasions, 72-76
Allmon, Warren, 67

Ammonites, 23, 24
- extinction of, 30
Amphibians, of Permian Period, 14-17
Animals, domesticated, 9, 11,104-107.
See also Domestication
Anthropogenic mass extinctions. See Current mass extinction; Human activity
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, 104
Armadillos, 41
Arsinotherium, 36
Asteroid impact
- climate change from, 26-28
- dinosaur extinction from, 24-28, 29
- human extinction from, 157-158
- immediate effects of, 26
- likelihood of, 156,158
- re-creation of, 24-28
- simulations of, 158-159
Attention-deficit/hyper activity disorder, 144-146
Australia, megamammal extinctions in, 43-44
Australopithecus aethiopithecus, 140
Australopithecus afarensis, 140
Australopithecus africanus, 140
Australopithecus boisei, 140
Autotrophs, 151

¬

Background extinction, 55
Bacteria
- drug-resistant, 104
- extinction of, 104
Ballast water, alien species in, 73-76
Bedding planes, 18
Beetles, Erwin estimates of, 51-53
Behavioral consequences, of urbanization, 84-85
Behavioral disorders heritability of, 145-146
- increase in, 144-146
Behavioral genetics, 146-148
The Bell Curve, (Herrnstein & Murray), 144
Biarmosuchians, 17
Biodisparity, 115, 132
Biodiversity
- abiotic factors in, 65-66
- biotic factors in, 65-66
- body size and, 53
- climate change and, 86-87
- continental drift and, 70-72
- decrease in, 11, 63-64. See also Extinction
- definition of, 132
- faunal interchange and, 70-72,152
- fluctuations in, 65-66
- habitat changes and, 56-57, 67-68
- habitat size and, 64-66, 70-72

183


- increase in, 32, 35. See also Speciation
- mass extinctions and, 32, 35,48
- mean equilibrium value of, 65
- measurement of, 48-53
- regulation of, 64-66
- temperature and, 71
- trends in, 64-66
ďThe Biodiversity Crisis and the Future of EvolutionĒ (Myers), 113-114
Bioengineering, 6, 108-113
- domestication as, 6-7, 108-113
- ecological risks of, 112-113
- in humans, 147
Biological warfare, 164
Biostratigraphy, 123
Biotic change, human-induced, 7
Biotic islands, 10
Bioturbation, 18
Bipeds, emergence of, 29
Birds
- extinction of, 56-59
- as supertaxa, 124
Birks, John, 160
Body size
- decrease in, 114
- doubling time and, 124
- habitat size and, 114, 134-135
- of recovery fauna, 134-135
- speciation for, 114
- species diversity and, 53
Body types
- changes in, 28-29, 85
- preservation of, 115
Braided rivers, 18-20

Brain size, evolution of, 141-142
Brown, J., 77
Burgess Shale fossils, 132-133

Calvin, William, 143, 161
Cambrian Explosion, 128-134
Captorhinids, 15
Carbon dioxide
- global warming and, 86-87
- plant effects of, 87
Carrying capacity, 92-95
Cenozoic Era, 32
Cereals, as recovery fauna, 11, 104-105, 108
Chambered nautilus, 171-173
Chaos theory, 57
Children of the Ice Age (Stanley), 144
Chlorofluorocarbons, ozone depletion from, 97
The Chronic Argonauts (Wells), 3
Cities, growth of, 80-85
Cladograms, 125-127, 129
Clam extinctions, 28
Clam fossils, 23
Climate change, 61
- from asteroid impact, 26-28
- extinction and, 87
- flip-flop, 161-163
- human extinction from, 161-163
- mass extinctions from, 33, 43
- after nuclear war, 160-161
- ocean currents and, 162-163

- plant populations and, 43, 86-87
- prediction of, 85-88
- urbanization and, 82-83
Climate flip-flop, 161-163
Coastal zones, population growth in, 89-90
Cohen, Joel, 92
Comets. See Asteroid impact Comings, David, 144
Compounded disturbances, 68-70
Conservation efforts, 60, 115
Continental drift, 38, 63
- biodiversity and, 70-72
Convergent evolution, 133-134
Coral reefs, 35, 170-173
Crabs, predatory, 76
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites, 21, 24
Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 8, 24-28, 32. See also Mass extinction(s) - evolutionary innovation after, 130-134
Crops. See also Plant(s) as recovery fauna, 11, 104-105, 108 ,
transgenic, 110-113
The Crucible of Creation (Morris), 133
Crutzen, Paul, 160
Current mass extinction, 7-9, 10. See also Mass extinction(s)
- biodiversity decrease in, 48
- controversies over, 47 ó 48
- loss of megamammals in, 39-45
- megamammals in, 39-45, 135

184


- optimistic vs. pessimistic view of, 59-61
- rate of, 54-56, 59-61
- recovery fauna of, 9
- recovery from, 114
- speciation after, 8-9
- unique characteristics of, 114
Cuttlefish, 30
Cynodonts, 17

D

Darwin, Charles, 67, 104
Darwin among the Machines: The Evolution of Global Intelligence (Dyson), 148-151
Dawkins, Richard, 47
Deacon, Terry, 105,143
Deforestation, 55-56
Desertification, 91
Dicynodonts, 17, 29
Dinosaurs age of, 8
- extinction of, 8, 24-28, 29
Directed evolution, 146-148
Disaster taxa, 34
Disease
- genetic, 144-146
- human extinction from, 163
Disparity, 115,132
Diversity. See Biodiversity
The Diversity of Life (Wilson), 56
Dixon, Douglas, 5-6, 133-134
Dogs, domestication of, 107
Domesticated animals, as recovery fauna, 9, 11, 104-107
Domesticated plants, as recovery fauna, 11, 104-105,108

Domestication, 6
- bioengineering in, 6-7, 108-113
- characteristics of, 105-107
- genetic aspects of, 107
- reduced intelligence and, 22, 105,107
Doubling time, 123-124
- body size and, 124
Doyle, Arthur Conan, 15
Drexler, Eric, 166
Drosophila melanogaster,
- transgenic, 110
Drosty (South Africa), 37-38
Drug-resistant bacteria, 104
Dyson, George, 148-151

E

Earth
- asteroid collisions with. See Asteroid impact
- carrying capacity of, 92-95
Earthquakes, from asteroid impact, 26
The Earth Transformed (Goudie&Vile), 96
Eckhardt, William, 159
Ecological succession, 70
Ecological surprises, 70
Ecological time, 65
Ehrlich, Anne, 8, 48
Ehrlich, Paul, 8, 48, 55
Eldredge, Niles, 8
Elephants, 41
- disappearance of, 38-39
Endemic centers, evolutionary potential of, 115-116
The End of Evolution (Ward), 8

Engines of Creation (Drexler), 166
Environmental changes
- loss of diversity and, 56-57, 67-68
- speciation and, 68
Environmental disturbances
- compounded, 68-70
- vs. perturbations, 67
Eosuchians, 15
Equilibrium theory of island biogeography, 64 ó 65
Erwin estimates, 51-53
Eutrophication, 96
Evolution
- changing patterns of, 6-7
- convergent, 133-134
- directed, 146-148
- directionality of, 139-140
- future of, 97-101, 113-117, 152-175. See also Future evolution
- genetic isolation and, 140
- human imprint on, 7 ó 8
Evolutionary convergence, 5-6
Evolutionary innovation, 10. See also Speciation barriers to, 132-134
- in Cambrian Explosion, 128-134
- decline of, 128
- requirements for, 132-134
Evolutionary rate, 122-124
Evolutionary succession, 79-80
Evolutionary winners, prediction of, 121-128
Evolution crisis, 113-114
Extinction, 156-167. See also Mass extinction(s)

185


- background, 55
- of bacteria, 104
- climate change and, 87
- of dinosaurs, 8, 24-28, 29
- habitat changes and, 56-57, 67-68
- habitat size and, 64-66
- human, 156-167. See also Human extinction
- inevitability of, 55, 174-175
- of marine species, 10, 30, 88-90
- random, 55
- severity of, 54-56
- species introduction and, 72-76
- susceptibility to, 59-60
Extinction (Ehrlich & Ehrlich), 8
Extinction rates, 34
- estimates of, 54-56
- of supertaxa, 124

F

Faunal interchange, 70-72, 152
Fish
- extinction of, 10, 30, 88-90
- overfishing of, 89, 90
- speciation in, 90
Florida panther, 54
Forests
- loss of, 55-56
- turnover rate for, 88
Fossils
- as biostratigraphic markers, 123
- of Burgess Shale, 132-133
- clam, 23
- definition of, 14
- of Karoo Desert, 13-20

- of Permian Period, 13-18
- plant, 14-15
Fruit flies, transgenic, 110
Future evolution, 97-101, 113-117,152-175
- asteroid impact and, 157-159
- fictional treatments of, 3-5, 153
- scenarios of, 152 ó 153

G

Gaston, K. G., 51
The Gene Bomb (Comings), 144
General Circulation Models, 86
Genes
- jumping, 11, 109
- terminator, 113
Genetic disorders
- heritability of, 145-146
- increase in, 144-146
Genetic drift, 147
Genetic engineering, 6, 108-113
- domestication as, 6-7
- ecological risks of, 112-113
- in humans, 147
Genetic isolation, 140
Genetics, behavioral, 146-148
Genetic variation, loss of, 53-54
Geographic isolation, speciation and, 70-72, 152
Geographic range, population size and, 77
Geologic time, 65
Giant clams
- extinction of, 28
- fossils of, 23

Giant ground sloths, 41
Giardet, Herbert, 82
Global cooling. See also Climate change from asteroid impact, 26
- global warming and, 160-163
- in nuclear winter, 159-161
- from oceanic changes, 161-163
Global warming, 85-88, 161-163.
See also Climate change
- after asteroid impact, 26-28
Glossopteris, 15
Glyptodonts, 43
GNR technologies, 166
Gomphotheres, 41
Gondwanaland, 38
- reunification of, 63-64
Gorgonopsians, 16, 17
Goudie, A., 96
Gould, Stephen Jay, 79, 133
Gray goo problem, 166
Great climate flip-flop, 161-163
Great Escarpment, 37
Great Lakes, zebra mussel in, 76
Ground sloths, 41
Gulf Stream, 162

H

Habitat changes
- compounded disturbances and, 68-70
- disturbances vs. perturbations, 67
- ecological succession and, 70

186


- extinction and, 56-57, 67-68
- human activity and, 80-85
- speciation and, 68
Habitat islands, 77
Habitat preservation, 60, 115
Habitat size
- biodiversity and, 56-57, 64-66, 70-72
- body size and, 114, 134-135
- extinction rate and, 64-66
- for megamammals, 114
Hendaye fossil beds, 20-28
Heritability
- of behavioral disorders, 145-146
- definition of, 145
- of intelligence, 143
Heterotrophs, 151
Holdover taxa, 34
Hominidae, 140
Homo erectus, 140
Homo habilis, 140
Homo heidelburgensis, 140
Homo neanderthalis, 140
Homo sapiens, 140
Howard, Ebeneezer, 81
How Many People Can the Earth Support? (Cohen), 92
Human activity
- alien invasions and, 72-76
- biological impact of, 7
- directed evolution and, 146-148
- evolutionary impact of, 7-8
- habitat change and, 80-85
- pollution and, 80-85
Human evolution, 139-153
- bioengineering in, 147
- intelligence in, 142-144

- morphological, 140
- natural selection in, 141
- outline of, 140-141
- racial homogenization in, 141
- speciation in, 141, 148, 152-153
- symbiosis with machines in, 149-151
- unnatural selection in, 144-146
Human extinction, 156-167
- from asteroid impact, 157-159
- from climate change, 161-163
- from disease, 163
- from intelligent machines, 164-165
- likelihood of, 9, 167-168
- from nanotechnology, 165-166
- from thermonuclear war, 159-161
Human Genome Project, 147
Humans, emergence of, 44
Hutchinson, Evelyn, 67
Huxley, Thomas, 5, 89

I

Ice Age, mass extinctions of, 39-45
Impact winter, 26
Inbreeding, genetic loss via, 54
Inoceramids, 23
Insects, transgenic, 110
Intelligence, 142-144
- components of, 142
- domestication effects on, 22, 105, 107
- evolution of, 143-144

- heritability of, 142-143
Intelligent machines, 164-165
Isolating mechanisms, in speciation, 152

J

James, Helen, 54 Joy, Bill, 165-166
Jumping genes, 11, 109

 

Kaczynski, Ted, 164
Karoo Desert
- disappearing elephants of, 38-39
- fossils of, 13-20
Kirchner, James, 116
Kitching, James, 38
K-T boundary, 28

L

Laboute, Pierre, 172,173
Lake Victoria, Nile perch in, 73
Large mammals. See Mega-mammals
Leakey, Richard, 8, 57
Le Corbusier, Charles, 81
Lewis, Roger, 8, 57
Lootsberg Pass, fossils of, 13-20
The Lost World (Doyle), 15
Luejea seemannii, Erwin estimates of, 52
Lycopods, 15
Lystrosaurus, 17, 20, 38

M

MacArthur, Robert, 64
Machines
- intelligent, 164-165

187


- symbiotic evolution with, 149-151
Macroevolution, 123
Malthus, Thomas, 93
Mammals
- body size of. See Body size
- emergence of, 29, 33
- large. See Megamammals
Mammoths, 41, 44
Marine species
- extinction of, 10, 30, 88-90
- overfishing and, 89, 90
- speciation in, 90
Marsupials, 43-44
Mass extinction(s). See also Extinction
- anthropogenic. See Current mass extinction; Human activity
- body form changes after, 28-29
- causes of, 33-34
- climate change and, 33, 43
- Cretaceous-Tertiary, 8, 32
- current. See Current mass extinction
- discovery of, 30-32
- evolutionary impact of, 32-33
- evolutionary innovation after, 10, 130-134
- expansion phase of, 34
- extinction phase of, 34
- fossil records of, 28-33
- macroevolutionary view of, 8
- origination rate after, 34
- Permian, 8, 18-20, 32-33
- rebound phase of, 34
- recovery fauna of, 116-117, 119-121. See
also Recovery fauna
- recovery interval after, 34, 116-117
- reef ecosystems and, 35
- sedimentary beds and, 17-20
- sequence of events in, 34-35
- severity of, 54-56
- speciation and, 8, 34-35. See also Speciation
- survival phase of, 34
Mastodons, 41, 44
Maurer, M. 77
May, Robert, 47, 53, 57
McKinney, Michael, 67, 79-80
Mean equilibrium value of diversity, 65
Megacities, growth of, 80-85
Megamammals
- extinction of, 10, 39-45, 135
- habitat size for, 114
Mellon, Margaret, 112
Mesozoic Era, 8, 13, 32
- end of, 8, 24-28, 26, 29
Metal processing, pollution from, 96, 151
Meteors. See Asteroid impact
Mexico, asteroid impact in, 24-28
The Minerís Canary (Eldredge), 8, 57
Modern mass extinction. See Current mass extinction
Molecular electronics, 166
Moores, Eldredge, 71
Moravec, Hans, 165
Morphological changes, 28-29, 85

Morris, Paul, 67
Morris, Simon Conway, 133
Moschorhinus, 17
The Mote in Godís Eye (Niven & Pournelle), 153
Myers, Norman, 6, 9, 55, 113-114, 115

N

Nanotechnology, 165-166
Natural selection, in human evolution, 141
Nautilus, 171-173
Neanderthals, 140
New Caledonia, 170-173
Niche saturation,
speciation rate and, 66
Nile perch, 73
Niven, Larry, 153
Non-native species, introduction of, 72-76
Nuclear weapons, 159-161
Nuclear winter, 160-161
Nutrient waste, 96

ő

Oceans
- climate change and, 162-163
- overfishing of, 89, 90
- after Permian extinction, 29-30
- pollution of, 90
Olson, Stors, 54
On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 67, 104
Oolite, 47
Organic pollutants, 96-97
Origination rates, 34
- of supertaxa, 124
Overfishing, 89, 90
Ozone depletion, 97

188


P

Paine, Michael, 158
Paine, Robert, 68
Pal, George, 3
Pale Blue Dot (Sagan), 166-167
Paleozoic Era, 8, 13, 32
Paranthropus, 140
Parasites, evolution of, 95-96
Permian extinction, 8, 18-20, 28. See also Mass extinction(s)
- discovery of, 30-32
- evolutionary impact of, 32-33
- evolutionary innovation after, 130-134
Permian Period
- amphibians of, 14-17
- fossils of, 13-18
- plants of, 14-15
- reptiles of, 14-17
- vertebrates of, 14-17
Perturbations, vs. disturbances, 67
Pevnitsky, Boris, 155-156
Phillips, John, 32
Plant(s)
- climate change and, 43, 86-87
- domesticated, 11, 104-105, 108. See also Domestication
- invasive, 76
- of Permian Period, 14-15
- transgenic, 108-113
- water resources and, 87-88
Plant fossils, 14-15
Plate tectonics, 38, 63
- biodiversity and, 70-72
Pleiotropy, 147

Pleistocene Epoch
- emergence of humans in, 44
- megamammal extinctions in, 39-45
Pollution, 96-97
- chemical effects of, 96-97
- marine, 90
- ozone depletion from, 97
- sources of, 80-85, 96-97, 151
Population bottleneck, 54
Population growth, 61, 92-95
- agriculture and, 93
- carrying capacity and, 92-95
- in coastal zones, 89-90
- water resources and, 93-95
Population size
- fluctuations in, 57
- geographic range and, 77
Pournelle, Jerry, 153
Probisiceans, 41
Progenitor taxa, 34
Project Wallace, 53

Q

Quammen, David, 8

R

Racial homogenization, 141
Rainforests loss of, 55-56
- turnover rate for, 88
Random extinction, 55
Raven, Peter, 48
Recovery fauna, 8-9, 11, 103-117, 116-117
- body size of, 134-135
- of current mass extinction, 9

- domesticated species as, 9, 11, 104-107
- doubling time for, 124
- prediction of, 119-121
- weeds as, 11
Recovery interval, 34
- length of, 116-117
Reef ecosystems, 35, 170-173
Rees, William, 81
Reptiles, of Permian Period, 14-17
Re-running the tape, 133
Rissler, James, 112
Rivers, braided, 18-20
Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind (Moravec), 165
Robotics, 164-165
Rodents
- proliferation of, 91
- as supertaxa, 124
Rubin, Gerald, 110

S

Sagan, Carl, 161, 166-167
Sea level, changes in, 61
Seas. See Oceans
Sedimentary beds, 17-20
- Burgess Shale, 132-133
- fossils in, 13-20
Upper Cretaceous, 21, 23-24
Sepkoski, Jack, 116
Shasta ground sloths, 41
Simberloff, Daniel, 56
Simpson, George Gaylord, 122-123
The Sixth Extinction (Leakey & Lewin), 8, 57
Skin color, homogenization of, 141

189


Sloths, 41, 43
Snakes, as supertaxa, 124
Solid waste, 83
The Song of the Dodo (Quammen), 8
Speciation. See also Evolutionary innovation
- for body size, 114
- in Cambrian Explosion, 128-134
- constraints on, 114
- after current mass extinction, 8-9
- faunal interchange and, 70-72, 152
- fish, 90
- geographic isolation and, 70-72, 152
- habitat disturbances and, 68
- human, 141,148,152-153
- isolating mechanisms in, 152
- mass extinctions and, 34 ó 35. See also Speciation
- niche saturation and, 66
- rate of, 66
Species
- climate change and, 86-87
- distribution of, 50
- introduction of, 72-76
- measurement of, 48-53
- synonymous, 50
- transgenic, 109-113
Species diversity. See Biodiversity
Spradling, Alan, 110
Stanley, Steven, 122-123, 144
The State of the World (Worldwatch Institute), 87

Steadman, David, 58
Stork, Nigel, 50, 51
Stromalites, 30
Sulawesi, species census of, 53
Sun, death of, 174-175
Supertaxa, 79-80, 124
Synonymy, species, 50
Synthetic organic compounds, 96-97

T

Taming. See Domestication
Taxa
- disaster, 34
- doubling time for, 123-124
- evolutionary rate for, 122-124
- holdover, 34
- progenitor, 34
- supertaxa, 79-80, 124
Teller, Edward, 156
Terminator gene, 113
Therapsids, 15
Thermonuclear war, 159-161
Therocephalians, 17
Thylacine, 118
Tidal waves, from asteroid impact, 26
Tiffany, Bruce, 15
The Time Machine (Wells), 3-5
Time travelers, 2-5
Touretteís syndrome, 144-146
Toxic waste, 85
Transgenics, 9
Transgenic species, 108-113
- ecological effects of, 112-113

Transposons, 11,109
Trawling, 89
Triassic Period, 13
Tropical rainforests
- loss of, 55-56
- turnover rate for, 88

U

Ungulates, extinction of, 41
Unnatural selection, 11, 144-146
Upper Cretaceous sedimentary beds, 21, 23-24
Urbanization, 80-85

V

Valentine, James, 71
Vertebrates, of Permian Period, 14-17
Viles, H., 96
Vitousek, P., 72

W

Warfare
- biological, 164
- nuclear, 159-161
The War of the Worlds (Wells), 2
Waste
- generation of, 83, 96-97
- types of, 96-97
Water resources
- agricultural use of, 93-95
- carrying capacity and, 95
- conflicts over, 160
- plants and, 87-88
- population growth and, 93-95
Weeds, 34
- bioengineering of, 108-113

190


CONTENTS

IMAGES

vii

FOREWORD

Biological Futures
Niles Eldredge
ix
PREFACE   xiii
INTRODUCTION The Chronic Argonauts 1
ONE

The Deep Past: A Tale of Two Extinctions

13
TWO The Near Past: The Beginning of the End of the Age of Megamammals 37
THREE Into the Present 47
FOUR

Reuniting Gondwanaland

63
FIVE

The Near Future: A New World

79
SIX

The First Ten Million Years: The Recovery Fauna

103
SEVEN

After the Recovery: A New Age?

119
EIGHT

The Future Evolution of Humans

139
NINE

Scenarios of Human Extinction: Will There Be an ďAfter ManĒ?

155
TEN

Deep Time, Far Future

169
BIBLIOGRAPHY

177
INDEX   183

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